Chapter 1 demonstrates that the road safety problem for motorcyclists differs sharply according to their environment. The typical urban motorcycle collision involves another vehicle, usually at a junction, and often when the motorcyclist has priority. The rural situation could not be more different. Often no other vehicle is involved and the location is away from a junction, typically on a bend. Contributory factors that increase the likelihood of such collisions are equally diverse. This chapter will deal with these diverse factors of critical interest to the safety auditor.